Throughout history, people have moved to adjust to changes in their environment, but more recently climate change and its impacts have sparked renewed interest among academics and the international community in the relationship between migration, the environment and climate change. This nexus is complex: environmental changes can drive migration; however, economic, social and cultural push factors are often difficult to isolate from environmental ones. In addition, migration inversely affects the environment in the place of destination. Other factors such as population growth, poverty, governance, human security and conflict further complicate the relationship between migration, the environment and climate change. The complexities of the migration–environment nexus call for a comprehensive approach in research, policy and practice.